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The following statement is taken from the book, "Humic, Fulvic and Microbial Balance: Organic Soil Conditioning, William R. Jackson, PhD., 1st ed, 1993."  pg549-550

Minimized water stress and the promotion of water transport to plants.235  Mycorrhizal fungi are able to endure much drier soil conditions than most plant life; therefore, plants with a healthy root mycorrhizal population benefit while under conditions of water stress.236,237 This improved tolerance to water stress is not due to water supply directly but to the improved nutrient status of the plants.238,239  According to Nelson and Safir, the addition of phosphorus to a growing medium cannot duplicate the increased drought resistance afforded by the presence of mycorrhizae when soil moisture is low.240  Allen et al., documented that organisms under water stress conditions exhibited resistance to water transport, but this resistance was decreased by up to 90% when mycorrhizae were introduced.241  Powell and Bagyaraj added that reduced resistance to water transport could result from moisture uptake, increased photosynthesis, or elevated cytokinin levels which stimulate stomatal openings.242  Allen and Boosalis demonstrated how plants treated with mycorrhizae have a greater tolerance for continued drought.169  Nonmycorrhizal wheat plants and mycorrhizal plants were watered to soil saturation and then allowed to continue transpiring as the soil dried.  The stomata of the nonmycorrhizal plants began closing and were totally closed after 4 days, but stomata in the mycorrhizal plants did not begin to close as soon and were still transpiring after 6 to 7 days.  Hardie and Leyton demonstrated that mycorrhizal plants are more capable of extracting soil moisture than nonmycorrhizal plants.243  Nutritional improvement and balance contribute greatly to increased drought tolerance.

235. Safir, G. R., Boyer, J.S., & Gendemann, J.W. (1971). Mycorrhizal enhancement of water transport in soybean.  Science, 581-583.

236. Mosse, B. (1978). Mycorrhiza and plant growth. Structure and functioning of plant populations. Verhandelingen der Kohinklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, Afdeling Nataarkunde: Tweede Reeks, deel 70, Nederland.

237.              Ruehle, J.L., & Marx, D.H. (1979). Fiber, food, fuel, and fungal symbionts. Science, 206, 419-422.

238.              Syltie, P.W. (1985). Effects of very small amounts of highly active biological substances on plant growth.  Biological Agriculture and Horticulture, 2, 245-269; and, Research reports and studies, Appropriate Technology Ltd. Dallas, TX:  Murray Sinks II of ATL (Publishcer).

239.              Menge, J.A. (1985a). Mycorrhiza Agriculture Technologies. In C. Elfring (ED.), Innovative biological technologies for lesser developed countries Workshop proceedings. Office of Technology Assessment, OTA-BP-G29. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

240.              Nelson, C.E., & Safir, G.R. (1982). Increased drought tolerance of mycorrhizal onion plants caused by improved phosphorus nutrition. Planta, 154, 407.

241.              Allen, M.F., & Smith, W.K., & Christensen, M. (1981).  Comparative water relations and photosynthesis of mycorrhizal and  nonmycorrhizal.  Bouteloua gracilis H.B.K. Lag ex Steud, New Phytology, 88, 683.

242.              Powell, C.L., & Bagyaraj, D.J. (1984). VA Mycorrhiza. Boca Raton, FL: CRC.

169.            Chollet, R., & Ogren, W.L. (1975). Regulation of photorespiration in C-3 and C-4 species.  Botanical           Review, 41, 137-179.

243.              Hardie, K., & Leyton, L. (1981). The influence of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae on growth and water relations of red clover. 1. In phosphate deficient soil. New Phytology, 89, 599.

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