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PROTOCOL FOR
KIWI, PASSION FRUIT AND OTHER SUB-TROPICAL FRUITS

I. INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE 
A. APPLICATION IN NURSERY:

Mix BioVam as an amendment to bedding soils at a rate of 8 lbs (one gallon) per cubic yard.  If seedlings are grown in individual liners, each plant should receive approximately 1/2 teaspoon. BioVam can also be applied as a top dressing in container stock. Use 2 teaspoons per container and water it in immediately.

Caution: If you pasteurize your soils, keep in mind that temperatures above 110 F (45 C) may be lethal to the Mycorrhiza in BioVam.

B. APPLICATION IN THE FIELD FOR NEW PLANTINGS OR TRANSPLANTING:
A minimum of 2 teaspoons of BioVam per plant is recommended. Place BioVam in the planting hole directly under rooted or unrooted cutting, ensuring that physical contact between BioVam and roots or callused end of cutting is established. There is leeway in this requirement of about an inch.

C. ROOT DIP:
This method is highly recommended when planting bare-rooted seedlings or vines.  Wet end of seedlings or plant roots with water or a solution of water and cytokinin derived from kelp.  Roll seedlings or plant roots in dry BioVam powder and roll until thoroughly covered.

D. APPLICATION TO ESTABLISHED PLANTINGS:
We recommend that mature trees and shrubs be treated with BioVam by applying 1/2 teaspoon in 6" deep holes 8" apart in the plant drip lines within the area of the root zone or rhizosphere.

Supplemental post-planting applications of BioVam can be achieved by means of shanking, drilling, digging in around roots, or planting BioVam-treated cover crops that can vector BioVam to the roots of the established plantings.  We recommend supplemental applications of BioVam to established plant groves at five year intervals or when cultural conditions dictate.

E. FREQUENCY OF USE OF BIOVAM
Regular and frequent addition of BioVam is more important in clayey soils than sandy, porous soils. Soil around the vines bases should also be top dressed with composted materials rich in bio-control agents.

F. FERTILIZERS:
We recommend the use of well-composted materials added to the fill soil, but not to exceed 5% by volume. Materials high in fulvic and humic acids are the most advantageous to successful union of BioVam and root.

Mycorrhizal inoculation is usually most responsive at low fertility levels. To assure inoculation the University of California recommends that the nutrient levels should be below at least one of the following with the phosphorous level being the most critical:

Nitrogen* 50 ppm approx 95 lbs/ac = 105 kg/ha
Phosphorous (Olsen) 34 ppm approx 64 lbs/ac = 71kg/ha
Manganese 27 ppm approx 50 lbs/ac = 55 kg/ha
Zinc 12 ppm approx 23 lbs/ac = 25 kg/ha
Organic Matter    

* Nitrate forms of nitrogen are preferable to ammonium forms especially in peat mixes.

Caution: Do not use pre-plant fertilizer or fertilizers in the hole at time of planting.  Added chemical or organic fertilizers will impair the BioVam's ability to establish itself in the root of the plant and delay or destroy the beneficial effects of BioVam on the plant.

G. FREQUENCY OF USE OF FERTILIZER:
Two applications of Biosol or another organic fertilizer equivalent to NPK 6-1-3 should be adequate for the first three years of plant development. A dose of 1/2 lb. of the fertilizer should be applied under drip or as a top dressing at the base of the plant in the first year.  Third and subsequent fertilizing applications should be increased to one pound per plant each year.

Special post-planting inoculum should be vectored or bored into the soil around the drip lines of orchards at five year intervals or sooner, depending on soil type and cultural situation.

Clay soils need re-inoculation more often than sandy porous soils.  Soils around seedlings and mature trees should also be top-dressed with well-composted materials bi-yearly to promote strptomyces soil bacteria, tricaderma fungi and other bio-control agents.

H. MISCELLANY:
All recommendations about dosage represent a minimum amount.  Increased dosages will add to speed and effectiveness of BioVam's working on the roots of your plants. Sulfur treatments should be replaced by mildew-fighting bacteria or other environmentally sensitive alternative.  Beneficial insects, botanical pesticides or other environmentally sensitive IPM measures can be implemented for pest control with good effect.

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