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BioVam raises the health of plants.
 
Introduction

BioVam contributes to factors that increase plant health.  A positive growth response is frequently tied to that elevated plant health.  Such plants may produce larger yields of highly nutritious fruits and vegetables which are rich with flavor.  Insects leave healthy plants alone, so insecticide use drops.   Less fertilizer inputs are required at much lower levels of phosphorus.  Low grade organic fertilizers can be effectively utilized to help in the reduction of ground water and run off water pollution.  Less water may be required to maintain such plants.  An improved bottom line is arrived at while reducing costs.   The problems associated with pesticide use, herbicide use, and soluble fertilizer use need not be part of this method of growing plants.  We call this method, "Plant health - growth response."

Another method of growing plants can be called, "Chemically forced - growth response."  Chemicals are used in an attempt to increase plant health.  More often than not, such plants are weakened, subject to insect attack, and generate complaints from consumers and environmentalists as insecticide and chemical fertilizer pollution problems surface.  Foods produced from such methods have also been a source of health complaints and warnings to the public.

We have formed the opinion that a growth response which results from increased plant health is a better way to grow plants.

Research on "Plant health - growth response."

Our research fills the gap between the study of Mycorrhiza working with plant roots and the external plant health issues.  When plants are inoculated with BioVam Mycorrhiza, they exhibit much higher plant health.   They become resistant to diseases and environmental stresses, have more chlorophyll in their leaves and do not attract insects because of their elevated conditions of health.  There have been a number of scientific tests conducted, measurements taken, pictures taken, etc., which have focused upon external comparisons with plants treated with Mycorrhiza Inoculants.  A lot of research has been focusing upon Mycorrhiza and the roots of treated plants in order to understand more about the interaction between Mycorrhiza and the host plant.  Given that Mycorrhiza is streaming nutrients into the root system of plants, our research gives a better understanding of "why" plant health is better, we have taken some microscopic photos and compared plants treated with BioVam Mycorrhiza with untreated plants.  The external pictures of treated and untreated plants demonstrate that plants treated with Mycorrhiza are larger and healthier.... and the internal pictures that look at the internal structures of plants point at "why" plant health has increased.

This research bridges the gap between the study of Mycorrhiza interactions with roots and the many different external characteristics that such plants exhibit.  This research has also demonstrates that long before the external health observations are observable, there are a lot of internal improvements that are taking place which those external characteristics will demonstrate.  We have also concluded that these internal plant improvements are another way of confirming that the Mycorrhizal fungi is having a beneficial effect and is present in the root system of such plants.   In many cases, these internal improvements are taking place before the external improvements can be observed. 

There seems to be a sequence of events taking place:   first, Mycorrhiza is introduced to the plant roots and a Mycorrhizal relationship forms between the plant roots and the fungi;  centered in that relationship is the streaming of nutrients into the plant via the Mycorrhiza fungi;  the first observable effect of plant health improvement takes place inside the plant;  as the plant continues to grow, the external plant health improvements can be noticed.  Those external improvements are tied directly to the internal improvements.  When one looks at the already defined and researched functions of the various internal plant structures (external cell layers, phloem sieve tubes, cambium layer, xylem vessels, pith, skin thickness and texture of fruit, etc.,) then the answer to the question, "Why are these external characteristics present in plants treated with Mycorrhiza?", is quickly answered.

In addition to the improvements located below, we have noted even more items in our study of the progression of health that is taking place in grape plants at the Vineyard and winery.  Those pictures are located elsewhere on this web site.

Index to Stem Cross Section Pictures

Maple examples
 

Quaking Aspen examples
 

Raspberry examples.
 

Rose examples.
 

Spirea examples.

We have found common internal characteristics among all the plants above which were treated with BioVam  Mycorrhiza.  These common characteristics are directly related to high levels of plant health and provide some of the answers why there is resistance to diseases, resistance to environmental stresses, and resistance to insect pests.

A thicker outer and inner bark seals the plant and makes it resistant to environmental stresses (too hot, cold, dry, wet).  The thicker bark area results in plants resistant to diseases.  Insects tend to leave healthy plants alone.  In all of our BioVam  plants we noticed a thicker outer and inner bark present.  That healthy bark "skin" functions to seal in the moisture of treated plants and to protect the plant from insects and diseases. 

Plentiful and larger Xylem vessels mean water and nutrients are readily available from the roots in higher quantities to the rest of the plant.  BioVam  plants have a larger root system to feed higher quantities of water and minerals into the plant.  When this higher influx of water and minerals are combined with the higher influx of nutrients produced by larger and healthier leaves, fruit and vegetables have higher nutrient levels and are much superior to untreated plants.  With the larger and more plentiful Xylem vessels and the thicker healthier bark layers, cuttings taken from treated plants remain moist and pliable and vibrant looking far longer than do cuttings taken from untreated plants.  For example, we have taken cuttings from a treated Asparagus Fern plant and noted that after a week, they still look like they were freshly cut. 

Larger and plentiful Phloem sieve tubes are found in BioVam  treated plants.  That means nutrients from the leaves are transported into the rest of the plant in higher quantities.  BioVam  treated plants typically have a better developed leaf system with large healthy leaves.  The Phloem sieve tubes are just under the outer layers of the plant and contribute to building up the growth layers which are added each year.   We noticed that those sieve tubes separated growth layers in our maple cuttings.  We didn't detect any layering of Phloem sieve tubes in the untreated plants.  This might explain why trees treated with BioVam  Mycorrhiza grow so much faster and larger in a shorter period of time than those not treated with Mycorrhiza.

Summary of Reasons "why" BioVam  treated plants are healthier:

Maple examples:   The following are microscopic pictures of Maple tree stems from plants treated with BioVam  (on the left) and not treated with BioVam  Mycorrhiza (on the right.)  These are all 200X pictures.  These pictures were taken on 01/14/99, while the plants were dormant with winter well underway.  Note in the first picture on the left below there are much larger Phloem sieve tubes present.  They carry nutrients from the leaves into the plant.  The smaller Xylem holes carry water and minerals into the plant.   Notice the second year growth ring in the picture on the left.  There appears to be another set of Phloem tubes present which are smaller than the outside set, but are still functioning.  That may account for why plants treated with Mycorrhiza grow so much faster and larger than untreated plants.

Click on Picture to Enlarge Photo

Maple Stem cross section from tree treated with BioVam

Treated with BioVam

 Untreated Maple Stem

Untreated

Treated with BioVam Mycorrhiza

Treated

Maple Cross Section Untreated

Untreated

Treated and Untreated with BioVam - Maple Trees

The Xylem Vessels which carry water and minerals from the tree roots into the plant are larger and more numerous in the Maple trees treated with BioVam  Mycorrhiza.  The Phloem sieve tubes, through which nutrients from the leaves are transported through the tree are significantly larger in the trees treated with BioVam  Mycorrhiza.  The thickness of the bark in treated plants is thicker than the untreated plants.  We also noticed that the bark in the BioVam  treated plants is healthier looking and has a uniform density as compared to the untreated plants.   BioVam  treated plants grow larger due to these physical features. 

Quaking Aspen examples:  The following are microscopic pictures of Aspen stems from plants treated with BioVam  (on the left) and not treated with BioVam  Mycorrhiza (on the right.)  These are all 200X pictures.  These pictures were taken on 01/16/99, while the plants were dormant with winter well underway.

Click on Picture to Enlarge Photo

Aspen:  Treated with BioVam

Treated

Aspen:  Untreated

Untreated

Aspen:  Treated with BioVam

Treated

Aspen:  Untreated

Untreated

Aspen:  Treated with BioVam

Treated

Aspen:   Untreated

Untreated

Treated and Untreated with BioVam - Aspen Trees

The Xylem Vessels which carry water and minerals from the Aspen tree roots into the plant are more numerous in the   plants treated with BioVam  Mycorrhiza.  The Phloem sieve tubes, through which nutrients from the leaves are transported through the Aspen plants are much better developed in the treated plants.   The bark is thicker in the treated plants, is healthier looking and has a uniform density as compared to the untreated plants.  The pictures on the left were taken from a new growth that came on after six year old trees were treated with Mycorrhiza.  The pictures on the right (above) were taken from limbs on a 10 year old Aspen tree.  Notice how the Xylem Vessels are clustered around the pith on the untreated plant while they are larger, more numerous and widely spread on the treated Aspen tree.  The new growth on the limb that had grown in after the Mycorrhiza was applied retained its leaves long after the leaves had dropped from limbs which were grown prior to the Mycorrhiza application. 

Raspberry examples:   The following are microscopic pictures of Raspberry stems from plants treated with BioVam  (on the left) and not treated with BioVam  Mycorrhiza (in the right.)  These are all 200X pictures.  These pictures were taken on 01/17/99, while the plants were dormant with winter well underway.   

Click on Picture to Enlarge Photo

Raspberry:  Treated with light source below.

Treated

Raspberry: Untreated plant with light source beneath.

Untreated

Raspberry:Treated plant with light source above.

Treated

Raspberry: Untreated with light source above.

Untreated

Treated and Untreated with BioVam - Raspberry Plants

The Xylem Vessels which carry water and minerals from the Raspberry roots into the plant are larger and more numerous in the plants treated with BioVam  Mycorrhiza (on the left).  In the untreated plants the Xylem Vessels are clustered closer to the pith and are scarcer out toward the outside surface of the stem.   The Phloem sieve tubes, through which nutrients from the leaves are transported through the Raspberry stems are larger in the Treated plants.   The bark is thicker in treated plants, is healthier looking and has a uniform density as compared to the untreated plants. 

 Rose examples:   The following are microscopic pictures of Rose stems from plants treated with BioVam  (on the left) and not treated with BioVam  Mycorrhiza (in the right.)  These are all 200X pictures.  These pictures were taken on 01/16/99, while the plants were dormant with winter well underway. 

Click on Picture to Enlarge Photo

Roses Treated with BioVam

Treated With BioVam

Roses Untreated

Untreated

Roses Treated with BioVam

Treated with BioVam

Roses Untreated

Untreated

Treated and Untreated with BioVam - Rose Plants

The Xylem Vessels which carry water and minerals from the Rose roots into the plant are more numerous in the Rose plants treated with BioVam  Mycorrhiza.  The Phloem sieve tubes, through which nutrients from the leaves are transported through the Rose stems are about the same in Treated and Untreated plants.   The bark is thicker in treated plants, is healthier looking and has a uniform density as compared to the untreated plants.

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